Суббота, 18 мая 2024

О печах: чем «фурнос» отличается от «фурнин»

Фото pixabay.com
Фото pixabay.com

Традиционные печи делятся на два вида в зависимости от размера. Большие печи использовали для хлебобулочных изделий, маленькие – для блюд в глиняных горшках или на металлических подносах.

Во многих местах Кипра до сих пор можно встретить традиционные полукруглые печи. Это важный элемент традиционного кипрского дома. Без такой печи невозможно было ни выпекать хлеб, ни запечь мясо для «клефтико», ни приготовить кипрский аналог плова – «тавас».

Словом «фурнос» называют большую печь, словом «фурнин» – маленькую.

Конструкция

Печь имела форму полушара. Ее складывали из камней или кирпичей, которые легко выдерживают высокие температуры. Вся внешняя поверхность была смазана глиной, чтобы закрыть щели и сохранить больше тепла внутри.

«Фурнос» ставили на относительно высокое основание, примерно по пояс человека, чтобы удобнее было готовить. Внутри дно печи выкладывали плиткой. В верхней части делали небольшое отверстие, чтобы разводить огонь внутри. Отверстие спереди чаще всего было квадратное или полукруглое.

«Фурнос» обычно складывали на внутреннем дворе дома, в противоположном от входа углу, чтобы дым не беспокоил жителей.

Когда пространство не позволяло, делали маленькую печь «фурнин». Она могла быть даже встроена в основное здание, но устьем всегда во внутренний двор. Рядом с печью хранили дрова и ветки, необходимые для розжига.

В состоятельных домах часто делали две печи – большую и маленькую. Вторые были менее затратны и нагревались быстрее.

Те, кто не мог позволить себе сложенные из камней печи, прибегали к более бюджетному варианту – покупали большой глиняный горшок, устанавливали его на бок на подставке и обмазывали глиной, смешанной с соломой. Минусом такой конструкции было то, что она плохо выдерживала высокие температуры и могла обрушиться. Кстати, корни гончарного дела на Кипре уходят к 1300 году н.э. 

Фото pixabay.com

Как пользовались

В печи разводили сильный огонь, чтобы камни внутри побелели от высокой температуры. К обычным дровам могли добавлять ароматические травы или ветви кустарников типа саркопотериума, что придавало готовым продуктам особый запах.

Затем у печки чистили дно – специальной палкой («сиртис») с намотанной на нее мокрой тряпкой (чтобы она не загорелась) сгребали в стороны оставшийся с прошлого раза уголь. Это было необходимо, чтобы не испачкать в золе еду, которую собирались готовить. Сразу после этого в печь ставили то, что надо было приготовить.

Для того чтобы поставить в печь подготовленные для запекания мучные изделия, использовали плоскую лопату с длинной ручкой («фурнофкион»). Когда все оказывалось внутри, хозяйка закрывала устье заслонкой. Щели сразу же замазывали глиной, чтобы не терять жар.

Когда выпечка была готова, печь «взламывали», то есть отбивали заслонку и доставали выпечку снова с помощью лопаты.

Что готовили

В прежние времена «фурнос» использовали для приготовления самых разных мучных продуктов: хлеба, бубликов-кулури, традиционных сладостей и выпечки, типа пасхальных пирожков «флаун». Маленькие печи использовали для блюд в глиняных горшках (тавас, клефтико) или на металлических подносах (картофель, макароны, бобовые).

«Фурнин» и сегодня используется гораздо чаще, чем «фурнос». Последний практически вышел из употребления по мере индустриализации производства хлеба и использования современных печей.

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