Понедельник, 20 мая 2024

Киприотки занимаются наукой в ожидании низкой пенсии

Фото eurekalert.org

На Кипре 12 100 женщин работают учеными или инженерами — это 42% от их общего количества. Поэтому показателю Кипр обгоняет многие страны Евросоюза. При этом, если смотреть на пенсии, картина будет ровно противоположной — пенсии жительниц острова в среднем на 38% ниже, чем у киприотов. Это пятый по величине разрыв среди 27 стран ЕС.

Исследование «Евростата» показывает, что общее число ученых и инженеров на Кипре в 2018 году было 28 900 человек, из них 12 100 женщин и 16 800 мужчин.

Из почти 15 млн ученых и инженеров в ЕС 59% составляли мужчины и 41% женщины. В четырех государствах ЕС ситуация схожа с кипрской — женщины занимают должности ученых чаще, чем мужчины: в Литве (57%), Болгарии и Латвии (52%) и Дании (51%). Менее трети ученых и инженеров женского пола работают в Финляндии (29%), Венгрии (30%), Люксембурге (31%) и Германии (33%). Больше всего мужчин (79%) трудятся в промышленном производстве.

Что касается пенсий, то в 2018 году жительницы ЕС в возрасте старше 65 лет получали пенсию, которая была в среднем на 30% ниже, чем у мужчин. Это свидетельствует о том, что гендерный разрыв в пенсионном обеспечении сокращается, так как в настоящее время он на 4% меньше, чем в 2010 году.

Хотя женщины получают более низкие пенсии во всех государствах ЕС, масштабы разрыва сильно отличаются. Наибольшая разница наблюдалась в Люксембурге, где женщины старше 65 лет получали пенсию на 43% ниже, чем мужчины. За Люксембургом следуют: Мальта (42%), Нидерланды (40%), Австрия (39%), Кипр (38%) и Германия (37%). Наименьшие различия в пенсионных доходах между женщинами и мужчинами в Эстонии (1%), Дании (7%), Словакии (8%), Чехии (13%) и Венгрии (16%).

По сравнению с 2010 годом разрыв в пенсионном обеспечении сократился в большинстве стран-членов ЕС. Наиболее заметное снижение зафиксировали в Греции (с 37% в 2010 году до 25% в 2018 году), Дании (-11%), Бельгии и Словении (обе страны -10%), а также во Франции (-9%).

В целом по Евросоюзу с 2010 по 2018 года доля пенсионерок, живущих на грани бедности, оставалась примерно на 3-4% выше, чем доля пенсионеров-мужчин.


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