Понедельник, 4 марта 2024

Франкские бани – наследие крестоносцев

Фото bigcyprus.com.cy

Пафос выделяется среди остальных кипрских городов богатством своего исторического наследия. Его называют колыбелью античного Кипра. Одна из ярких исторических реликвий данного места – Франкские бани. Это общественные купальни франкского периода (1192-1489 гг.). Они построены крестоносцами в XIII веке и напоминают о коротком владычестве франков на острове.

В ногу с остальным миром

Баня появилась в древности. История этого явления ведется с периода освоения человечеством огня. Прообразом стал очаг посреди жилища первобытной эпохи. По другой версии история парилки начинается при естественных термальных источниках. Древние люди согревались в горячей воде, наслаждаясь теплым паром и чистотой тел. Южноамериканские индейцы парились в глиняной «камере для потения» – темескали. Сооружали ее у вод для омовения и охлаждения. Нечто подобное существует в современной Гватемале. У древних аборигенов северной Америки парилка представляла собой вигвам с раскаленными камнями внутри, которые обрызгивали водой для образования пара.

Скифская история появления парилки у древних кочевых племен описывается Геродотом: сооружали ее из трех жердей, обтягивали шкурами или войлоком. Парились древние скифы с ритуальными танцами, внутри шатра в котел воды кидали разогретые камни и коноплю, в клубах пара колотили себя вениками.

История Древнего Китая и Индии свидетельствует: баня появилась в XII веке до н. э., когда ванны горячей воды с травами и благовонными компрессами стали использовать в гигиенических целях. Японская сэнто устроена по другому принципу: человек парился, погружаясь в бочки с очень горячей водой. А затем нырял в разогретые до +60°C древесные опилки. После прогревания – массаж с маслами и чайная церемония.

Окунуться в историю

История Древнего Египта повествует о появлении парилок сложной конструкции: снизу огромные каменные валуны подогревал огонь, сверху они обдавались горячей водой и паром. На теплых камнях посетителям парилки делали массаж с маслом и благовониями.

Похожее устройство имела баня Древней Греции. Парные процедуры занимали не последнее место в культуре древних греков. В силу дороговизны отопления она становится общественной, полностью вытеснив частные. Древние греки, провозгласив культ тела человека, посещали ее через день.

Римские термы доведены древними мастерами до совершенства. Это роскошные культурно-развлекательные комплексы, украшенные мрамором, скульптурами и фонтанами. Кроме парилки, включала в себя много комнат и помещений разной направленности:
· для расслабления и отдыха;
· кабинеты для массажа;
· бассейны для омовения и купания с разной температурой воды;
· библиотеки;
· площадки для спорта;
· клубы по интересам;
· тренажерные залы.

Но самое парение проводилось римлянами как медицинская процедура по предписанию врача. Именно от древних римских терм берет свое начало история хамама.

Бани в Пафосе – турецкий след

В Пафосе, в том же месте, где находится археологический парк вокруг церкви св. Кириакии, сохранились бани, которые датируются франкским периодом. Парилки представляют собой каменные здания и имеют центральное помещение с пристройками по бокам. Во время ранней турецкой оккупации некоторые полукруглые сводчатые крыши здания были заменены купольными, чтобы больше соответствовать стандартам турецких хамамов. В XV столетии Кипр захватили турки, перестроившие здания по своему вкусу. На сегодняшний день здесь остались две купальни. Они привлекают внимание грубой каменной кладкой, арочными широкими окнами, куполообразными крышами с небольшими круглыми отверстиями. Бани разрушены с задней стороны, а с фасада очень похожи на турецкий хамам. Когда-то они вмещали до тысячи человек.

средневековые бани пафос bigcyprus2

средневековые бани пафос bigcyprus3

Фото bigcyprus.com.cy

 

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