Воскресенье, 25 февраля 2024

Выбрано главное кипрское дерево

Департамент лесного хозяйства назвал свой символ 2023 года. Им стало неприхотливое растение с красивыми цветами и плодами. В древности ему приписывали магические свойства – древесина использовалась в качестве оберега.

На Кипре дерево-2023 именуется «коккиномосфилья», а по-научному – боярышник однопестичный (Crataegus monogyna). Оно относится к семейству розовые (Rosaceae). Растение можно встретить по всему острову.

Символизм

В Европе в Средние века боярышник признавали символом надежды. Древесина даже использовалась в качестве оберега. Древние греки клали ветки боярышника у окон и дверей, чтобы помешать колдунам проникнуть внутрь. Они также считали его знаком плодородия. Однако в некоторых других культурах присутствие боярышника в доме было дурным знаком.

Сейчас растение предпочитают использовать как декоративное или в качестве живой изгороди. «Коккиномосфилья» применяется в фармацевтической промышленности для изготовления лекарств, связанных с нарушениями работы сердца и системы кровообращения.

С точки зрения науки

Название Crataegus происходит от древнегреческого crataios. Оно означает «крепкий» и указывает на свойства древесины. Род Crataegus включает около 200 видов. На Кипре он представлен видами боярышник азароль (Crataegus azarolus) и боярышник однопестичный (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). В местах сосуществования видов встречается гибрид Crataegus x sinaica.

Это листопадный кустарник или дерево высотой до 7 метров. У него грубая кора с глубокими бороздами. На ветвях растут крепкие, мощные шипы. Цветки белые или розовые, с сильным запахом. Цветет с апреля по май.

Плод представляет собой овальное яблоко красного или кроваво-красного цвета, созревает с сентября по ноябрь. Плоды у боярышника однопестичного съедобны, но не такие вкусные, как у более популярного в кипрской кухне боярышника азароль.

География распространения

Боярышник однопестичный растет на территориях от Европы до Ближнего Востока. Для Кипра считается родным, то есть не был завезен сюда специально. Особенно распространен на Акамасе, в долине Лаона, в районах селений Фикарду, Вуни, Панайя, Продромос, Платрес, Платания, Лофу, Пера Педи, Саранди. Растет на высоте от 300 до 1800 метров над уровнем моря.

Растение представляет ценность для окружающей его среды: на нем находят убежище и пищу множество насекомых, птиц и млекопитающих.

Боярышник размножают семенами и черенками. В некоторых случаях прорастание семян может занять до 18 месяцев. Саженцы можно приобрести в питомниках Департамента лесного хозяйства в Платании и в районе Ставрос-тис-Псокас. Кстати, в 2022 году семена различных растений выдавали бесплатно во время национальной Недели деревьев.

Общая популяция вида довольно велика. Но есть и угрозы – строительство дорог и расширение посевов сельскохозяйственных культур. Значительная часть деревьев на Кипре расположена в пределах государственных лесов и пользуется охранным статусом.

 

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