Четверг, 29 февраля 2024

Денежно-кредитную политику ужесточат

Фото freepik.com

За первую половину года цена на электроэнергию на Кипре выросла почти на треть. По всей территории ЕС средние цены на электроэнергию для домашних хозяйств также увеличились по сравнению с аналогичным периодом 2021 года. Данные публикует Евростат. Минфин в этой связи анонсировал ужесточение денежно-кредитной политики. Предполагается, данная мера должна помочь стабилизировать ситуацию.

Есть страны, где электроэнергия подешевела

На Кипре электричество подорожало на 32%. В первой половине 2021 года оно стоило 19,8 за 100 кВт-ч, а в начале нынешнего – 26,1 евро за 100 кВт-ч. В среднем по Евросоюзу рост был не таким сильным: с 22 евро за 100 кВт-ч в первой половине 2021 года до 25,3 евро за 100 кВт-ч в первой половине 2022. Наибольший рост цен на электроэнергию был зарегистрирован в Чехии (+62%), Латвии (+59%) и Дании (+57%). Но были страны, где цены за свет не выросли, а упали. К таким относятся Нидерланды (-54%), Словения (-16%), Польша (-3%), Португалия и Венгрия (обе -1%). Снижение цен в Нидерландах, Словении и Польше было связано с предоставлением государственных субсидий, а в Венгрии – с госрегулированием.

Дешевле всего – в Нидерландах

Самые низкие средние цены на электроэнергию для частного потребления в первой половине 2022 года были зафиксированы в Нидерландах (5,9 евро за 100 кВт-ч), Венгрии (9,5 евро за 100 кВт-ч) и Болгарии (10,9 евро за 100 кВт-ч). Самые высокие средние показатели за тот же период – в Дании (45,6 евро за 100 кВт-ч), Бельгии (33,8 евро за 100 кВт-ч), Германии (32,8 евро за 100 кВт-ч) и Италии (31,2 евро за 100 кВт-ч). Средние цены на газ в ЕС также выросли по сравнению с аналогичным периодом 2021 года: с 6,4 евро до 8,6 евро за 100 кВт-ч.

Налоги за электричество и газ снизились

По сравнению с прошлым годом доля налогов и сборов в итоговых счетах за электроэнергию и газ, взимаемых с домохозяйств в ЕС в первой половине 2022 года, значительно снизилась: многие государства ЕС ввели государственные льготы и субсидии для снижения высоких затрат населения. По сравнению с первой половиной 2021 года доля налогов в среднем счете за свет сократилась с 39% до 24%, а в счете за газ – с 36% до 27%.

Дешевой энергии больше не будет

Министр финансов Константинос Петридис предупреждает: в мировой экономике происходят тектонические сдвиги. «Время дешевой энергии и дешевых денег прошло, – подчеркнул он во время обсуждений нового бюджета страны в парламентском комитете по финансовым вопросам. – Нам придется перестроить всю экономическую политику и социальные направления в соответствии с новой реальностью. Она принесет два больших изменения. Забудьте о дешевой энергии, которая создала богатство ЕС в последние 30 лет, и о дешевых деньгах». Чиновник предупредил: цены на электроэнергию в перспективе останутся высокими. Особенно с учетом перехода ЕС к «зеленой экономике». «Легкие» деньги от кредитов и потребления тоже не вернутся в течение как минимум ближайших 10 лет. «Приспособиться к новым условиям будет очень трудно, потому что в прошлом имела место неправильная денежно-кредитная политика. Мы должны осознавать это и говорить людям правду: предстоящие годы будут трудными. Денежно-кредитная политика будет оказывать давление в большей степени, чем раньше», – прогнозирует министр.

Благосостояние укрепят за счет роста налогов

Бюджет 2023 года направлен на адаптацию к последствиям высокой инфляции. А это достижимо за счет увеличения доходов от прямого налогообложения наряду с большим развитием и укреплением государства всеобщего благосостояния. Петридис объяснил, что ключевая цель повышения процентных ставок – удорожание заемных денег. Это приведет к сокращению потребления и снижению инфляции за счет сокращения количества денег в обращении. «Цены на пшеницу, древесину и строительные материалы выросли. И это логично, когда вы придерживаетесь мягкой денежно-кредитной политики. Потому что все могут брать в долг. Потребление и спрос повышают цены», – подчеркнул Петридис.

 

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